Yes, you can deadlift almost every day, get stronger, and not get injured. Here's how.
A deadlift isn't merely an expression of absolute strength, but a skill-based movement that takes considerable practice to hone and refine. As such, it's a movement that can be performed daily in order to keep that pattern sharp.
It can be in a max or near-max modality, a lower intensity version done for a much higher volume, trained for speed, super slow, paused, or with altered stance. An athlete will train a skill for hours each day, in any way possible in order to stay sharp. A deadlift can't be consistently improved by only training it once a week.
Here's an example of how you could work in deadlifting every day, or involve some sort of deadlifting pattern on a regular basis:
Monday: Max-tension development, using only 135 pounds. Do 10 sets of 5 reps. Work on getting as tense and braced up as possible. Envision lifting 1,000 pounds and getting set for it. Take as much rest as you need.
Tuesday: Max speed: Use 60% of your max weight and work on accelerating the weight from the floor to lockout as fast as possible. Do 8 sets of 3 with a 2-4 minute rest between sets. Westside calls this Dynamic Effort. Olympic weight lifters call it a regular training session.
Wednesday: Near-max lifts. Use 90% of your max and perform 10 singles after working up through a couple of warm-up sets. Take 3-5 minutes of rest between sets.
Thursday: 20 x 20 kettlebell swings performed on the minute. Work on getting the hips to snap the movement fast and hard while keeping the core tense and strong.
Friday: Pause x 2 deadlifts. On the way up, pause for 3 seconds at 3 inches below the knee, 3 inches above the knee, and then finish at lockout. Lower the weight in one move. Use 75% of max for 6 sets of 5. Rest until you can finally see colors again.
Saturday: Using 85% of your max, do 1 rep every 30 seconds for 10 minutes.
Sunday: PR day.